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7th Workshop on Exploitation and Utilization of Information Resources in Asia-Pacific Region
May 6-20, 1997. ISTIC, Beijing, People's Republic of China

Executive Summary Report ] Tour Programme ] List of Participants ] Details of Visit to ISTIC ] Workshop Programme ] Details of Technical Session ] [ Details of Papers Presented by the Participants ] Discussion about the Cooperation between the Participants' Countries ] Closing Ceremony ]

Details of Papers Presented by the Participants
Discussions (Lectures by participants)

Annexure - E

Networked activities in the National Library
SWU: OKA Library - New IT Library: Challenge of Change
Information Services for SME in Thailand: Restructuring Information Organisation in Current Economic Situation
The Catalogue Division of the National Library
Information Services for SME
Online Catalogs in Academic Libraries in Thailand
The Sakretariat Nagara of the Republic of Indonesia - Its Status, Functions and Organisation
Introduction to Management of the Information System and Services in National Centre for Natural Science & Technology of Vietnam
Sri Lanka S & T Information Centre at NARESA
Indonesia's Computerised Family Planning Information System
Survival and Development of Information Organisation
Information Market Scenario in India
Exploitation & Utilization of Information Resources in the University of Perpetual Help System Laguna Library
S & T Information Services in the Philippines
Academic Library Network in Thailand
Country Report - North Sulawesi Province - Republic of Indonesia
Computerised Circulation and Cataloging in the College of Science Library
Organisational and Administration Problems of Library Institutions in Thailand

Networked activities in the National Library
Mr. Leonardo P Bernabe, Jr. Philippines

Mr. Bernabe discussed about the conceptual framework of the Philippines Library Information Network (PHILIN), National Library Network (NLIN), UNICAT System and Library system (TINLIB).

In response to the participant's query, he informed that the copyright office is located in the National Library. He also informed that they provide free information; they don't have any online activities and planning to go for Internet access by November 1997.

 

SWU: OKA Library - New IT Library: Challenge of Change
Ms. Aurathai Waressa ARD. Thailand

Ms. Aurathai informed that their library is very new and they are using Dynix System as Integrated Library Automation System having all the modules such as Cataloguing, Circulation, OPAC, etc.

 

Information Services for SME in Thailand: Restructuring Information Organisation in Current Economic Situation
Ms. Narumol Ruenwai. Thailand

Ms. Narumol talked about the strategy, needs on information of SME; business oriented policy on R & D, future activities and TISTR. She also informed that the privatization move is very strong in Thailand as government has reduced the financial support.

 

The Catalogue Division of the National Library
Ms. Paulina R Moreno. Philippines

Ms. Paulina talked about the catalog division of the National Library of Philippines and informed that they are using BiblioFile Cataloging Software.

 

Information Services for SME
Mr. Raj Kumar Shrestha. Nepal

Mr. Shrestha gave the brief information about the Federation of Nepal Chamber of Commerce and Industry ( FNCCI ). There are 68 Chambers of Commerce and 42 asscociation boards in Nepal.

 

Online Catalogs in Academic Libraries in Thailand
Dr.(Ms.) Tassana Hanpol, Thailand

Dr. Tasanna gave the background of academic libraries in Thailand. Academic libraries in Thailand comprise libraries of 20 state universities under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of University Affairs. The idea of using information technology in libraries in Thailand was initiated in 1977 by the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and after that it increased throughout libraries and information centres. Cgulalongkorn University was the first university that started using an automated library system and government plans for every Thai academic library to follow.

She talked about the advantages of card catalogs system and online catalogs system (OPAC). She also informed that each academic library has its own campus network, for example, Chulianet, RUNet, STOUNet, etc. The national network, Thai Academic Library Network (THAILINET) consists of THAILINET (M) for Metropolitan and PULINET for provincial university library network. The main purpose of THAILINET is to share academic information resource both in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area and in the provinces. Online Catalogs are a part of THAILINET (M) and PULINET that will help to achieve the target of the THAILINET.

In the last, she narrated the new role of Catalogers, i.e., intensive on the job training in database searching and editing procedures, familiar with national local MARC standards and codes, familiar with the basic bibliographic description and authority control, library classification and cuttering practices. The greatest demand on the catalogers is the need for expertise in planning and maintaining automated systems, developing new applications for technology and managing personnel and operation.

 

The Sakretariat Nagara of the Republic of Indonesia - Its Status, Functions and Organisation
Ms. Nannie Hudawati, Indonesia

Ms. Nannie explained the status, functions, and organisational structure of the Sekretariar Negara of the Republic of Indonesia. Its main activity is to provide administrative backup for presidential function as Head of the State. Since 1973, the President also put some more assignments to the Sekretariat Negara to take care of organisational and financial management of the coordinating Ministers and the state Ministers who do not have portfolios.

She also talked about the information service in Indonesia. The library is open to public for providing information on legislation published in the Gazette. The IPTEKNET (Science & Technology Net) main server located in Central Statistical Bureau, consists of government institutions, research institutions, technical university, libraries in academic/university, limited companies, House of representatives. The internet technology, which make the information access easily and accurately at any time, have been utilised by government institutions at national and local level. There are 200+ ISPs in Indonesia and Jakarta only has more than 13000 subscribers around 4 years ago.

The government information is fundamental to modern societies. The awareness and the need for information dissemination and information service to the public insist the government institutions to improve their information systems with utilising the information wisely.

She also provided the list of addresses of Indonesian Government Information Services with their main functions.

 

Introduction to Management of the Information System and Services in National Centre for Natural Science & Technology of Vietnam
Mr. Nguyen Van Dam, Vietnam

Mr. Nguyen started the presentation with importance of information on science and technology. The principal objective of Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) is to develop and promote the flow of scientific and technological information, with a view to ensuring that information reaches the users and satisfies their needs. The main information products and services of ISI are as follows:

 

Products:

  1. Periodical couriers on science, technology and industrial properties, which are, published 12 numbers in year

  2. Journal of Scientific branches

    • Vietnam Journal of Mathematics (in English)

    • Journal of Physics (in English)

    • Journal of Mechanics (abstracts in English)

    • Journal of Biology (abstracts in English)

    • Journal of Science & Technology (Abstracts in English)

    • Journal of Chemistry (Abstracts in English)

    • Journal of Geology (Abstracts in English)

    • Journal of Informatics (in English)

    • Proceedings (in English)

    • Annual reports on research results

    • Forecasting on progress in Science & Technology of Vietnam

    • Courier on Study in Development Strategies of Scientific and Technological priorities

  3. Bibliographic databases correspond to above journals

  4. Some Scientific communications

  5. Communication on new journals and books

  6. Some services by information requirements

  7. Retrieval and provision copies of original journals

 

Services:

  • Online databases services

  • Publishing service of abstracting journals in science and technology

  • Translation service

He also talked about information cooperation and exchange on information documents, connecting, exploiting and utilising databases with more than forty provinces and cities. The information network VESTENET, consists of following main databases:

Information Network VESTENET: Databases

Scientific and Technological documents, Environment

Standards of Vietnam

Research programmes

Industrial Catalogue

United Bibliography of Libraries in Country

Research results

FIRM National enterprises

Database on CDROM : Pascal

In the last, he mentioned about the International cooperation and exchange with The Institute for Information of Russian Academi (VINITI), the Institute for Scientific and Technical Information under National Centre for Scientific Research of France for ISI scientific documents, journals, original books particular in training field. ISI also have cooperation with China, Japan, Australia, ASIAN countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore and some countries in Europe to exchange documents, training and attend the workshops, etc.

 

Sri Lanka S & T Information Centre at NARESA
Mr. Namal Prassana Kumara, Sri Lanka

Mr. Namal gave the details of National Resources Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka (NARESA). It is a state-funded authority instituted under the Ministry of Science & Technology in 1981. The functions of NARESA are:

  • to advise the government on policies and measures for the management and development of natural resources, energy and science & technology;

  • to initiate and sponsor scientific and technological research; and

  • to collect and disseminate information on science & technology.

Sri Lanka Scientific & Technical Information Centre (SLSTIC) was established as National Scientific & Technical Documentation Centre for the country. SLSTIC/NARESA initiated to develop the National Information Network by establishing its Local Area Network (LAN). LAN at NARESA was implemented using an Ethernet based Novel 4.1 as Network Operating System. There are two main information sources on the LAN using local databases (developed by SLSTIC using CDS/ISIS) and CDROM databases.

LAN at NARESA: Databases

Local Databases

CDROM Databases

Research projects coordinated by NARESA with final findings

SIRS Researcher - Reference tool with full text articles on a wide variety of science, social science and world affairs topics

Ongoing research on S & T in Sri Lanka

EI Energy & Environment

S & T personnel in Sri Lanka

Silver Platter Biotechnology Abstracts

Union List of Periodicals held in Sri Lankan libraries

Silver Platter Life Sciences Collection

Local pamphlets, reports, articles of current local periodicals & newspapers

Dissertation Abstracts - A comprehensive source of dissertation information

SLSTIC has already developed a homepage for NARSA at http://www.naresa.ac.lk. The databases can be searched by sending requests to search@naresa.ac.lk and the results are sent back through email. All the PCs in the NARESA LAN runs TCP/IP in addition to IPX, enabling them the access to information through internet as well, mainly used for email, www, ftp, telnet, IRC, etc.

NARESA's main web server provides general information about NARESA, and S & T News from Sri Lanka. Vidya Server provides access to online research databases created in CDS/ISIS to Internet users, email server and ftp server provides the email facility and file transfer respectively to NARESA users as well as remote S & T institutions.

He also talked about Lanka Educational Academic and Research Network (LEARN). LEARN interconnects Educational and R & D institutions across the country. SLSTIC at NARESA is the focal point for S & T information on LEARN and it plays a major role in S & T information dissemination. The infrastructure for LEARN is provided by Sri Lanka Telecom (SLT), providing data-lines to interconnect the participating institutions. SLSTIC LAN main router connects to main LEARN router at SLT which connects to he Internet through SLT main router.

He ended his presentation with the future development of SLSTIC, which includes, adding more powerful UNIS servers, increasing the capacity of data-lines connecting NARESA LAN to LEARN, increasing the number of dial-in lines to NARESA network.

 

Indonesia's Computerised Family Planning Information System
Drs. H Supijadji Djamin MPA, Indonesia

Drs. Supijadji gave various facts and figures about Indonesia such as geographical, demographical, family planning, population, education and family planning program & information system. In 1970, the Bureau of Reporting and Documentation of the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) undertook the designing and developing of a system for reporting and recording of program data. NFPCB is expected to take the initiative in developing the network and play an active role in coordinating the implementing unit and the cooperating agencies and institutions. The objective of network is to help in overcoming barriers and facilitate effective use of existing information and materials. A computerised data/information bank have been developed at the central NFPCB office, consisting of data/information base, namely operational database, manpower database, logistic databases, financial database, library database, research funding database, archive database, family welfare database, etc.

 

Survival and Development of Information Organisation
Mr. Harihar Subedi, Nepal

Mr. Harihar mentioned about his organisation i.e., ZDH Participation Program, is a German program -- a German Confederation of Small Enterprise. ZDH started its operation in Asia in 1990 with a HQ in Singapore. Nepal, Bangladesh, Philippines, Indonesia, China, Burma and Sri Lanka are the participating countries in Asia. ZDH project in Nepal started in September 1991 and 40 chamber of commerce and industry are the partners.

He also talked about the importance of information, characteristics of SMEs, developing and surviving, information centre defined, developing an information service, knowing the target group and their information needs information needs of SMEs and surviving in information service.

 

Information Market Scenario in India
Mr. Vimal Kumar Varun. India

Mr. Vimal presented all aspects of Information Market Scenario in India. He gave the details on growth of public funded information systems, growth of data networks, international linkages, growth of private enterprises, transformation of book trade, internet scenario, endeavours in business and commercial information, international tie-ups, market dynamics, changing face of news agencies, commercialisation and privatisation of public funded systems, Indian database ventures, Indian databases on CDROM, Indian online services, commercialisation of public supported information activities.

He also gave the illustrative list of information systems in the country, database and services on science & information technology, network development efforts, library networks under development, ESPs, ISPs, VSAT operators, CDROM vendors, Indian electronic publishing efforts, BBS'es.

He also mentioned the following various strategies for information market development:

  • Building up of a modern information market would require active participation of information users, individuals and institutions responsible for product development, distribution and investments. The existing library based information services would have to go.

  • The market should facilitate the Indian users to access the world of knowledge and the foreign users to access Indian information. A goal of self-reliance in information should not be pursued.

  • To generate an intrinsic strength of the market, India should have indigenous databases for national and international consumption and also arrange tie-ups with global database producers for Indian or partial database input support. A lot could be achieved simply by improving the quality and timeliness of primary publications.

  • It is necessary to keep abreast of new developments in the international information market and identify alternative sources for accessing similar sets of information as fall back support.

  • Keeping in view the economic conditions in the country utmost effort is required to be made to optimize investments vis--vis information resource development especially when foreign exchange is involved.

  • The scientific and technological information alone is not sufficient to sustain a healthy electronic information market. In keeping with the global scene, other components of the market should also grow simultaneously and the sooner it does the better.

  • The dominant role of the government as the promoter and financier of information activities would decrease. Commercial enterprises and non-profit organizations may be enthused to take on more responsibilities. Besides participation of international agencies may also be invited.

  • For efficient market operations, the level of skills of information professionals, entrepreneurs and users would need to be enhanced through appropriate manpower development programmes. A facility for hands-on training for online searching also needs to be established.

  • An Information Market Analysis Group (IMAG) may also be set up to continuously monitor the market trends and opportunities, emerging technologies, price fluctuations and so on.

The diffusion of information & communication technologies in developing countries could facilitate access to the global knowledge-base for harmonious economic development, better environmental management and enhanced quality of life. A proper understanding of the evolving information society would help formulating regional policies based on different cultural, economic and linguistic-conditions. Apart from actions on the strategies outlined in the earlier section, the following specific recommendations are made:

  • A regular mechanism for analysing the trends in development of information technologies, new products and services in the national and international market place may be set up, and periodic reports on broad and specific areas may be made.

  • A baseline study of the Indian information market in respect of its size and the pattern of development may be undertaken immediately.

  • A mechanism may be set up for policy analysis, for making recommendations on new policy instruments and suggest methodologies for their implementation.

  • The Government may be urged to adopt a programme to help the nascent information industry (in public and private sector) to grow harmoniously with necessary fiscal policy and management support.

  • The tradeable public domain information generated and held by the government may be selectively released to the private sector for product development, value addition and service generation.

  • The public funded information systems may be urged to reassess realistically their charging policies vis--vis the national welfare objectives and market conditions and adopt new approaches so as to avoid causing unequal market competition and the drain of tax-payers money.

  • The information industry players - government, private for-profit and private non-profit, should get organized and form an Information Industry Association for furtherance of their interests and greater visibility.

 

Exploitation & Utilization of Information Resources in the University of Perpetual Help System Laguna Library
Ms. Elizabeth D Malabanan, Philippines

Ms. Elizabeth talked about the University of Perpetual Help System Laguna Library and possible scenario for the exploitation and utilisation of information resources in University of Perpetual Help System Laguna. Currently, it meets the library needs of 7000 students, faculty and staff in 10 colleges and 6 schools. More than 7000 volumes and a regular subscription of 40 serial titles are maintained by the university library. The system as a whole is made up of Main Library, Medical and Health Science Library, College of Law and Graduate School Library and the Elementary-High School Library.

On the World Wide Web, the library offers a guide to researchers who want to research about a particular project. The resources available are encyclopaedia, indexes to subject headings of articles, statistical guides, quick facts, people, etc.

She concluded the presentation saying that a metamorphosis is taking place in the way libraries produce, store, access and disseminate information, largely due to the impact of computer and telecommunication technologies. There is a need to reshape the thinking, a focus on new role, critically analyse and drop extraneous activities, and plan new ways of operating the services to meet the challenge of the future, all for global competitiveness for correct information.

 

S & T Information Services in the Philippines
Ms. Marilyn C Villamero & Ms. Nenita C Balbalosa. Philippines

Ms. Marilyn and Ms. Nenita discussed the urgency and importance of S & T Information Services in the Philippines as a vehicle for national development and detailed in the context of the activities in this area of he office mandated to perform this function like the Science and Technology Information Institute (STII) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) of the Philippines. Among the more current strategies being followed to improve the effectivity of these function are those of networking, resource sharing and the use of new information technology for sourcing, processing, storing and disseminating science and technology information (STI) to users.

STII has a set of basically service-oriented objectives, which are:

  1. to administer, coordinate and strengthen the science and Technology Information Network of the Philippines (SciNET-PHIL);

  2. to serve as the main exploitation point of scientific and technological information resources for national development;

  3. to develop and facilitate online access to local and remote databases for the collection, processing, storage and retrieval of information;

  4. to produce and disseminate S & T information materials and products through print, audio-visual, electronic and reprographic media; and

  5. to formulate and implement training programs on information science and technology.

The program thrusts of STII are clustered under Research & Development, Science & Technology Services, Education & training, and Information Dissemination and Library Services. The users are primarily from Sectoral Planing Councils (5), Research and Development Institutes (7), Service Institutes (5), Advisory Bodies (2), and Regional Offices (13) and S & T Provincial Centres (73). The secondary type users are students, researchers, private industry, entrepreneurs, NGOs, policy and decision-makers etc.

She also described about the special projects, namely, The Technology Information Services (TIS), The DOST Management Information System (MIS), The S & T Information Network of the Philippines (SciNET-PHIL), and The Engineering and Science Education (ESEP).

The TIS project was developed and approved by UNDP in 1989 for a three-year period and activities started in 1990. Its aim was to develop and strengthen the S & T information infrastructure in the countryside, combine the demand and supply sides of the S & T information system through innovative ways of sourcing, processing, packaging, disseminating and serving of information.

The MIS project was started by DOST in 1991 top develop a department-wide MIS as an important support to decision making at all levels. Its aims were to rationalise and standardise the reporting system of its R & D agencies, technology transfer programs and S & T services.

The SciNET-PHIL project is a consortium of libraries and information centres of the 21 agencies under DOST. The services rendered are Document Delivery, Documentation, S & T Information Sales and Marketing, Library and S & T Media, Printing, Referral, S & T Film Shows, SDI, Technical, Online and Offline information search (S & T), Training and Consultancy services.

ESEP is an important component of DOST Manpower Development Program with an objective to support technology development for industrialisation in the Philippines by increasing the supply of well-trained S & T manpower. Library collection development, library networking, international access, training, consultation, library provision are various programs developed by ESEP.

In the last, she also mentioned about the constraints that impede the effectivity of STI service in the Philippines. The constrains are: still inadequate telecommunication infrastructure, lack of an articulated national policy on science and technology information, lock of mechanisms for more effective STI dissemination.

 

Academic Library Network in Thailand
Mr. Chuman Chaokeratipong. Thailand

Mr. Chuman presented the status of academic library network in Thailand. The networks will link together all university libraries' information and can be used everywhere locally and world-wide. There are several networks that have been, or being, developed and may be divided into three levels, namely, campus network, institutional network and national network.

The campus network, a LAN, is designed as a system that links all departments in the university together. For example, it connects the library's database with microcomputers of members staff in every faculty. The programme use in the network is basically Micro CDS/ISIS.

The institutional network connects a university library's online system with other universities in the country. It is generally called WAN. Three such networks have been completed so far, including PULINET, THAILINET and THAISARN. PULINET (Provincial University Library and Information Network) is a cooperation project among 9 universities in several provinces. It allows universities involved to share data and information resources by connecting the university libraries' online s together. The link between libraries help to facilitates inter-library loan, develop network system, and create library automation. THAILINET (Thai Academic Library Network) is a project under the auspices of the Ministry of Academic Affairs. The network connects all libraries of 12 public universities together. The network has the same functions as those of PULINET. THAILINET is also linked with other local networks (e.g. PULINET) and network in foreign countries. THAISARN (Thai Social Scientific a Research Network) is developed by NECTEC (National Electronics and Computer Technology Centre), an institute attached to Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy. The network links online database system of the Ministry to the computer centres and the computing systems of all libraries in Thailand. It also connects the computer networks in Thailand with information centres; as well the computer networks, in foreign countries.

The National Network of the Thai Government plans to establish a national information network in order to categorise academic information systems. There is only one project that has been completed so far. That is the so-called Thai National Information System or Thai NATIS.

 

Country Report - North Sulawesi Province - Republic of Indonesia
Ms. Evie Etty Rondonuwu. Indonesia

Ms. Evie presented the country report of North Sulawesi Province which includes varied areas such as main characteristic, geography, extent on territorial division, mountains, human resources, natural resources, socio-cultural resources, religion, women role, culture, social relationship, tourism.

She also gave the details of health developed program in North Sulawesi. Its aim is to increase the level of human resource quality, quality of live and life expectancy, especially to the people with low income. She informed that there are 135 health centres, 700 sub-health centres 21 hospitals. The ratio of doctors to population is 1:5528, paramedis and population is 1:1045 and midwives and separate village is 1:2, Infant mortality rate (50.8/1000 live births), maternal mortality rate (212/100000 live birth and crude death rate 8.10/1000. Health efforts in Indonesia are aimed at achieving more even distribution of health services within the entire social spectrum. Emphasis is placed on health services delivery to groups most vulnerable to health hazards, such as infants, children under 5 years of age, pregnant women, giving birth, breast feeding women.

 

Computerised Circulation and Cataloging in the College of Science Library
Mr. Francisco T Tamor, Philippines

Mr. Francisco narrated the impact of information technology on the work of libraries or information units over the last twenty-five years. The greatest impact in library work has been the increased use of computers both for the staff and the public/customers. The first major application of computers in libraries was a simple catalogue. The need for shared records among different libraries led to the development of the Machine Readable Catalogue Format (MARC) which would allow any library with the right software to have access to bibliographic records. But since the 1980s, there has been more of a change over to the computer being used not simply as a catalogue but rather being used as an automated version of lending circulation system.

The emerging reality of library automation has transferred the College of Science Library into a major information provider, not only for the University of Philippines academic community, but also for local and international community as well. AS one of the flag institution under the Department of Science and Technology -- Engineering and Science Education Project (DOST-ESEP), it is committed to provide computer-based application of traditional library functions, such as acquisition, cataloguing and circulation.

The library stock includes over 39,000 books, 1201 serials (121 are currently received), abstracting and indexing journals, microforms and other types of materials (diskettes, CDROMs, audio-visuals, etc.). It acquires 600-800 books annually from various sources.

He talked about the traditional library operation of a library such user/public services such as circulation, and user assistance that involve direct contact with users and technical services, the backroom operation such as acquisition, cataloguing, shelving and binding. In many ways, the catalogue is the key stein that joins the two areas of technical and public services.

Integrated automated library system used in the College of Science Library is TINLIB and it includes cataloguing, acquisition, serials, OPAC and circulation. OPAC can be accessed by telnetting to 165.220.19.30 and login as OPAC.

 

Organisational and Administration Problems of Library Institutions in Thailand
Mr. Songvit Kaeosri. Thailand

Mr. Songvit presented the organisational and administrative problems of library institutions in Thailand, especially the unity or hierarchy of various organs in the parent bodies, scattered at the various ministries. For example, The National Library belongs to the Department of Fine Arts, Ministry of Education with a main office in central Bangkok and branches in various provinces in the region. The National Library is the oldest and biggest established in 1872. Thailand has 75 provinces including Bangkok Metropolis. He mentioned that The National Library is like a fully computerised book museum.

The public libraries belong to the Department of Informal Education, Ministry of Education. About 800 public libraries are located at the districts and provinces.

The university or graduate school libraries belongs to the Ministry of Academic Affairs. While Rajabhat Institutes of Teachers' Training, totalling about 36, belong to the Council of Rajabhat Institutes or former Department of Teachers' Training. Besides, libraries of those primary or secondary schools belong to various departments of the Ministry of Education, regardless of speaking to various special libraries in various government departments of private libraries.

The unity of command, the allocation of the budget, the cooperation and coordination among them especially the acquisition and services, etc. seem to be more complicate. This is nature of government lines and hierarchy. Inspite of all this , still the way to solve the problems are there by personal contacts and approach. It is true that Asian tradition can lead to the accomplishment by personal approach.

In Thailand, may efforts have been made to unite all these gaps by organising Thai Library Association, by cooperation in techniques and services of group librarians from each institution. There are many good things and merits in Thailand. For example, we have a good tradition for general people to publish books in various occasions like birthday anniversary or cremation. These books have been donated to libraries and information centres. It is remarkable number when compared to price-market books. Before ten years ago, books published to commemorate auspicious occasions formed more that 3-4 times of books in the market. At present, the production of books for sale has been increased, about 2000 title a year, but books of auspicious occasions are still for a half. This event seems to be different from other countries.


Vimal Kumar Varun, New Delhi. INDIA
29 November, 2006 12:12:04 -0500

vkv@usa.com, http://vkv.tripod.com